US group of scholars declares academic boycott on Israel

A group of American scholars had voted to create an academic boycott to all Israeli universities and colleges to bring disapproval toward Israeli’s treatment towards the Palestinians.

The American Studies Association (ASA), dubbed as the largest academic collective ever to protest is composed of 5,000 members from different fields of scholarly works. The members voted last Sunday night in favor of a boycott by 2-to-1 margin. 1,252 members voted on the issue obtaining 66% percent voting of “yes” while the other 30% is “no”.

“The ASA condemns the United States’ significant role in aiding and abetting Israel’s violations of human rights against Palestinians and its occupation of Palestinian lands through its use of the veto in the UN Security Council,” The ASA said in a statement explaining the result of the votes to the public.

Though the boycott has been agreed by the institution, ASA ensures that the result will not limit its members to engage in joint researches involving individual Israeli institution. The boycott will only set bar on formal collaborations with Israeli academic institutions and those stakeholders who acts as representatives such as deans, presidents and others or on behalf of the government of Israel. This means that individual Israeli scholars can still attend and perform in conferences and speak at American universities and colleges in accordance that they will do such things without the power of the government.

An earlier statement issued by the ASA council stressed that the said boycott is an ethical stance and a form of material and symbolic action by the group. A principle of solidarity with scholars and students that are deprived of academic freedom is what it solely represents and acts to enlarge the aspiration of freedom to all including the Palestine people.

Noura Erakat, a Paletinian-American human right lawyer and member of ASA exclaims that the reason for the boycott is highly significant for it is a victory within the United States and the academic association to which it is supported overwhelmingly.

ASA President Curtiz Mendez on the other end says that “The boycott is the best way to protect and expand academic freedom and access to education. Palestinian academics are frequently impeded by Israeli occupation authorities, schools and universities have been bombed by U.S.-supported Israeli military forces, and the Wall blocks educational access for thousands of students. As an association of scholars and educators, the ASA has an ethical responsibility to act.”

Previous boycotts and sanctions against Israel have also been successful in Europe and elsewhere. The vote has been a largely symbolic and a sign of the boosting momentum of international embargo against Israel and the behavior it shows to the Palestinians.

The statement by the ASA has been seen as the first step on more boycotts coming from American institutions urging the meeting next month from Modern Language Association that will also include a talk on academic boycotts.

Abraham Foxman, national director of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), released an statement and called ASA’s announcement as shameful, morally bankrupt and intellectually dishonest attack on academic freedom.

He further states that to target Israeli institutions for they are located inside the premises of Israel which is the only democratic country to where scholarship and debate are encouraged and flourished, is a sign of myopic and fundamentally distorted of the land of Israel and the issue and is manifestly unjust.

Adding to this contrary is the American Association of University Professors who criticizes that the boycott is an abuse of academic freedom.

The spokesman of the Israeli Foreign Ministry, Yigal Palmor, has refuse to comment about the ASA’s declaration and referred the reporters to the Israeli Embassy in Washington whom also kept silent about the issue.

U.S. News & World Report releases 2013 top universities, colleges list

Among “national universities” in the United States, Princeton Universities tops the poll as the best while Williams College remains number one on the National Liberal Arts Colleges following the annual report of US News & Worlds Report.

The assessment dated September 2013 was done to list the best universities and best colleges based on 16 different factors each weighed for its importance. Among these factors were the tuition, acceptance rates, sizes of each class and the graduation rates. This annual evaluation was made to help students and parents decide on which school to go to.

Princeton University grabbed the number one spot for the “Best National Universities” and broke the tie with Harvard University, who didn’t fall much behind by landing the number two place. Princeton offers bachelor’s, master’s and PhD programs and is located in the quiet town of Princeton, N.J. The top university was the first to offer no loans to students and instead give grants for needy scholars.

Williams Colleges on the other hand was handpicked soul winner for “Best National Liberal Arts Colleges” that focuses on undergraduate education and also awards almost half of their degrees on English, economics and sociology. This private school in Massachusetts claimed the first position after Amherst University’s reign four years ago and still topped the list.

The US News updated the methods of ranking for the 2014 reflecting on the current state of college admissions. “We also increased the weight of graduation and retention rates for national universities and liberal arts colleges and extended graduation rate performance, which measures the difference between an institution’s predicted and actual graduation rates, to regional schools.” US News says.

The rest of the Top 10 spots in the national universities categories include Yale University for third place, Columbia University as fourth, a tie in the fifth place between Stanford University and University of Columbia. A triple tie between Duke University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and University of Pennsylvania for top seven was also recorded while California Institute of Technology and Dartmouth College completes the listing.

On the national liberal arts category following Williams College is Amherst University, Swarthmore College, Bowdoin College, Middlebury College, Pomona College, Carleton College, Wellesley College, Claremont McKenna College, Davidson College and Haverford College.

A great improvement was later found on those national universities who are not in the top of the rankings. Pennsylvania State University for example climbed nine spots from 46th to 37th having a tie with Ohio’s Case Western Reserve University. Same thing happened with national liberal arts colleges like Pitzer College California who from No. 43 became No. 35.

President Barack Obama on the other hand emphasized the significance of finding a school that offers a good value in his recently concluded college affordability bus tour.

The ranking determines three factors to consider for students and parents- the relationship between the quality of education to the price being paid, the percentage of undergrads receiving in need grants and the average discount from the total cost the school present. There variable when met will give institutions an idea of the best value for each ranking category.  This report can also help international students know where to enroll.

“Regardless of whether students are aiming for an Ivy League education or want to attend a more affordable public university, the Best Colleges rankings provide critical information to help narrow the search.” US News & World’s Report exclaims.

The full ranking as well as additional for each university and colleges among the US News & World’s list can be found on their website.

Sampel Essay on Policing and Crime Prevention

By Jody M. Herbert


At the beginning of the 21st century, the role of police as a force and crime prevention institution is still important for the government and society in general. Police is an organization which aim is to provide a public safety function and prevents crimes. The police are often used as an emergency service. As any other organization, the police can be viewed and analyzed from different perspectives and theories including the revisionist portrayal of its functions and practices.

The factor of change in the policing procedures of the police body is the growing need for financial support of the community. The change of priorities of the government and the society as well which is now more focused upon economic advancements have direct impacts on the police performance. As a result to this, police officers grew lesser competent than the past police staffs. In fact, the division of their priorities brought about by the influence of the social changes has directly affected the attitudes of the police towards their duty.

The current need for the development of the uniformed police in England and Wales is caused by high crimes rates and inefficient system of current police structure. Today, the problem of violence and high crime rates becomes an issue of the day. Looking at the entire range of society’s current attempts to deal with this problem, there are tensions in the system wherever one’s glance falls.  The aim of uniformed is to provide a public safety function and prevents crimes. The main goals of the processes is to determine quality priorities, establishes the systems of quality and the procedures to be followed, provides resources and leads by example (The Police Service Strength England and Wales, 2005).

In the book Handbook of Policing, T. Newburn (2003) proposes a unique vision of police role and functions in historical context. His revisionist views help to explain the importance of ‘new’ police (‘policing’) for entire population. From revisionist perspectives, criminal laws and police was concerned to protect society by punishing those (the accused or defendants) who had committed crimes against the state, such as theft or murder. It is usually the state which prosecutes an individual or group at a trial in order to establish guilt. The legal system is one of the oldest and most traditional British institutions. Following Cohen, police authority and influence are due to its inde­pendence from the executive and legislative branches of govern­ment. It is supposed to serve citizens; control unlawful activities against them and the state; protect civil liberties; and support legit­imate government. Newburn (2003) uses the word “policing” instead of “police” to underline the importance and role of other groups besides the formal public agencies in maintaining law and order. Also, Newburn (2003) underlines that: “growing expenditure reflects the increased workload facing the police service” (2). He explains that since 1970s, there was an agreement between political parties concerning “law and order” (1). In three decades, the main problem faced by police and criminal justice is diversity of views and rules applied to police functions and its role in society.

 

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Sample Essay on Media Reaction

By Benjamin Edwards


American culture represents a unique mixture of different languages and religions, races and nationalities. Cultural factors exert the major influence on behavior of people as it is the fundamental determinant of a person’s wants and behavior. Media is one of the main tools of propaganda reflecting social issues and structure. The article “On Balance: At the J-Schools The Case against Ideological Engineering” discusses the portrayal of diversity in the media and impact of this strategy on the audience.

Cultural and racial diversity is still a problem for many publishers and editors. The article illustrates that people bring expectations and knowledge to national contexts, and not always in a form that reflects preformed stereotypes. Stereotypic knowledge does not have to be tagged directly with a group but can be constructed in context from more general knowledge about the groups and the relations between them. This article discusses an interesting case of ideological diversity and multiculturalism which affects American media. The author calls this process ideological engineering which allows editors manipulate public opinion using false comments and commentaries in order to create a negative image of certain racial groups. This article vividly portrays the diversity represented in the American landscape, different opinions and values (Lemann, 2006).

Many editors make a vital point in this respect in relation to visibility and its importance in disciplinary modes because racial inequalities are always highly visible, marked out within the public sphere and within the discourses that construct the audience. Today, the issues of racism and multiculturalism are closely connected as the term “multiethnic” used to bridge racial and ethnic groups: “multicultural” society  broadened the umbrella to include gender and other forms of diversity”. Such a process has had a profound impact on the media not least upon the ways in which cultural identities and relations are forged by racisms, whether in the form of the hegemonic gendering or the masculinities and femininities associated with subordinate groups (Berman, 2001).

The article portrays that media relies on stereotypes discussing and depicting different events and social issues. People not only discover the psychological differences between nations or races and the contents of stereotypes inductively and at first hand, they also learn about such differences at second hand and from a range of social sources. On the other hand, the diversity of languages, religions, education systems, and numerous other cultural factors contributes to different ways of life, habits, and customs (Berman 2001). Even within nations there is great cultural diversity, for example between the numerous ethnic and racial groups in the United States. The most important this article vividly portrays that culture is shared by members the American society and the behavioral traits of which it is comprised are manifested in a social institutions and artifacts. It is something that shapes behavior or structures cat s perception of the world (Sleeter, McLaren, n.d.).

 

Sample Essay on Labor And Women Role

By Diana Gonzalez


In the first article, the author analyses and discusses the problems of labor and labor relations, “co-research” and class composition. Labor relations is perhaps the most far-reaching and complex parameter of all. It is also the one which, in the past, account managers may have found difficulty in satisfactorily assessing. In order to check out the true viability of a project, the relationship manager needs to understand precisely how decisions are made in the client organization. The author underlines that class composition a silent factor in labor relations determining structure of “needs, behaviors and antagonist practices” (de Molina, 2006). The notion under discussion concerns a “latent consciousness” which has a great impact on self-understanding of women and self-determination.

The second article “Immaterial Labour” deals with the problem of composition of the working class and nature of HR within modern labor relations. The author describes these processes in terms of Taylorism and post-Faradism, Utopian and totalitarian views underlining the role of immaterial labor. The specific differences of production cycle are based on “ideological/ commodity products” and the “public/consumer”. The general public is one of the main models of consumer behavior which helps to identify commonalities. Quantities are determined by customers demands in factor markets in exactly the same way that the prices and quantities of commodities are determined in other markets.

The third article, ‘Reinfusing the Commons’, describes the problem of new labor relations and the role of women in production. The authors explain that modern women work harder then in the past but still receive lower wages then men. It is not an insuperable task to assemble information on the occupations currently available in the economy: how much each jobs pays, the nature of the work, the educational and skill requirements, and so on. The article portrays that women have high rates of drug use and suicides as a direct consequence of low wages and the burden of housekeeping.

The forth article is devoted to the problems of agricultural hegemony and increasing role of the ‘life science’ industries including seed firms; agrochemical concerns; agroforestry; veterinary services, food processors, packages, biotechnology; pharmaceuticals. Knowledge and information technologies create new labor market and control. The focus of this section has been on movement of workers within an area, but we should note that for some occupations the market is regional or national in scope. This is true for most professional, technical, and managerial occupations, and even for some skilled manual trades. Effective performance of these functions calls for educational and entrepreneurial activity by the employment service.

The articles under analysis show new (transformed) labor relations which marked a modern era in production and distribution. This point can be generalized. Modern labor practices differ from the orthodox approach underling the importance of subjective structure of labor force. Inefficiencies concerning information processing are especially salient. In a Taylorist system, it is a logical strategy to fight increasing complexity by introducing more sophisticated and complex labor relations. The authors underline that the “computer revolution” tends to prevent a real revolution because computers allow the process of bureaucratization to continue. The detailed division of labor required much information processing. For instance, supervisors had to give orders for each small step and later they had to check whether the orders had been carried out correctly. An analysis showed that around half of the hours worked consisted of direct labor…..

 

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Sample Essay on Biography of Eva Peron

By Denise Sorensen

 

Eva Peron (known as Evita) made a great contribution to political and social development of Argentine as one of the most powerful women in this region. Eva Peron was a second wife of the President J.D. Peron, and a political leader who took an active part in state affairs as “Spiritual Leader of the Nation” (Fraser, Navarro 1985).

According to Fraser and Navarro, Eva Peron was born on May 7, 1919. There are no documents survived concerning her birth date and place. It is assumed that Eva was born in Pampas, Argentine. All the records referred to the marriage date of the infant’s parents, and there was no way around this but to invent a marriage certificate for Doña Juana and her lover, Juan Duarte, under a number that would have come at the end of a volume, so that it might be assumed to have fallen out during binding. Eva spent her early ears in Junin, Buenos Aires Province. Her father was killed in a car accident in 1926. when she was 15, Eva came to Buenos Aires. The main problem was that Eva had no formal education or certificates which would help her to find a job. She worked as a film actress and a leading soap opera actress. In a eight years, she became one of the highest paid women in the radio.

The next stage in her life was connected with Juan Perón whom she met at the San Juan gala. The authors underline that Eva had not been interested in politics prior before she met Peron. He introduced Eva to his political circles and ‘taught’ her political strategy and ideas. In 1944, Eva was elected a President of broadcast performers union. Since 1945, Peron became one of the powerful men in Argentina occupying the position of War Minister. In a time, Peron was imprisoned, and Eva organized a meeting to free up Peron.  In 1946, Eva took an active part in Presidential campaign of Peron. During the next year, she organized “Rainbow Tour” in Europe meeting with heads of states. “In fact, the voyage had been first suggested by Generalissimo Francisco Franco, and the invitation had been addressed not to Eva, but to Juan” (Fraser, Navarro 1985, 88).

Eva took an part in social life of the country organizing charitable organization and political unions. She was engaged in Pro-Peronist trade unions and founded the Eva Peron Foundation. Still, “Evita’s social works have been persistently criticized for being wasteful, ill-conceived and unrelated to people’s needs” (Fraser, Navarro 1985, 131). The actress was now gone forever. Her pictures and publicity materials were recalled from the studios. Photographers yielded their negatives. Her last movie, still unreleased, was handed over to her as a present and was never shown. A pervasive obscurity that was to deepen with time began to enfold the facts and the memories of her early days. In 1952, Eva founded the Female Peronist Party which involved about 500,000 members. Her political ideas and power had a great influence on masses and the government and for this reason she decided to ballot as candidate for vice-president in 1951. Since 1950, she had serious heath problems fainted in public. She had an advanced form of cancer and died at the age of 33, on July 26, 1952.

 

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Sample Essay on Nation’s Economy

By Jason Corder

 

Nation’s economy is a set nation’s activities of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. At the same nation’s economy more than anything else affects everyone’s personal welfare and level of income. That is why it is important to understand the major principles and directions of economy development in order to be able to successfully manage own income and spending. And, surely, like many people have good and bad habits, nation’s economy has those as well. Some of them are easier to overcome while others are impossible to. At the same time, there are some that are actually necessary for the economy in order for it to grow and develop.

There is an opinion that constant ups and downs of the economy are necessary and at the same time inevitable, because it is normal that changes occur regularly and in most cases they are difficult to foresee and prevent in case they are negative (Kemper, 2006). Therefore, such a periodical change in economic state of a country can be viewed as a habit. The question is, however, whether it is a good or a bad one. On one hand, development and growth are impossible without changes. On the other – change is welcome only if it is positive. So, though unpredicted ups and downs of the economy are likely to be viewed as a bad habit due to the fact that inability to predict and, consequently, plan may lead to unreformable outcomes, they are still necessary because their absence will cause economical standstill or even regress.

One more bad habit of the any economy is a misuse of debt (Louder, 2007). Both government and people often choose to spend beyond their means – the longer it takes place, the greater is the debt. Economists note that the consumer debt of the USA, for example, has risen 90 percent from a 1980 per capita rate of $3,559 to $6,965 in 2004 (Public Affairs Television, 2005). But, this habit also likely to be necessary because some situations are impossible to be overcome without a credit.

Among the economy habits can also be listed its dependence of world economy, international relations of the country, foreign and current affairs of the government. Especially significant this habit becomes in our age of globalization and integration of world economies. Economy’s dependence on foreign countries’ economies leads to it absolute inability to exist independently, within one separate country. On the other hand, however, separate country’s economy might not be able to provide itself with all the necessary resources for growth and development. Hence, interrelation of world economies is a necessary factor for the development of all of them…

 

 

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Tips for Being Creative in Writing

Every writer will have to agree that creativity in writing comes from within. Every one may be born a good talker but there are just few who are gifted in the field of writing.

Unlike other skills, writing requires an efficient amount of creativity. This creativity means you will have no limitation in choosing the topics, you will have endless words to use and you will have a backup source to site or to include. Being creative in writing is not something that everyone has in nature. It is only being given to those who do the following things.

First, being creative in writing requires you to read, read and read. You will never have enough things to write about if you yourself are not a reader. Reading opens oneself to the world. As a writer you have to be an explorer and taking every step to know more and to learn more. Reading will also strengthen your vocabulary. Reading things in every field possible is highly recommended if you want to be original creator.

Second, being creative in writing requires you to write, write and write. Writing even if you may find it hard is a key. You should never stop writing and simply creating poems, short stories or even essays are all form of exercising your creativity. Making a journal or a diary will help to give too. Writing daily entries will help you to express more about yourself and will give a good feeling to you as an individual. Now a day’s blogging has been a great online outlet in new generation writers. You may create you free website or blog and write things those appeals to you. Just continually write for it will help you to be resourceful.

Third, being creative in writing requires you to ask, ask and ask. This means that you have to ask people to read your work and be open about their feedbacks. Writing should never stop in yourself. You have to be able to share it to people so that you will have a good critique. A creative writer is not just someone who creates the best of the best work but also someone who sees to it that he or she is open to new ideas. Asking people to read and give opinion to your work will help you in creating a network that will support you all throughout your writing process.

Lastly, being creative in writing requires you to seek, seek and seek. You have to seek new ways to improve your work. You have to find new technologies that will support you in writing and that will make you better. Seek in organization that gives free seminars about writing or find a group that you can join to that like you are good writers. Begin a network that will be your guide.

Creativity in writing may not be something in born to everyone but everyone has the opportunity to be as long as you follow the steps above.

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